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Print Posted on 05/18/2018 in Fertility Treatment Options

How Do They Understand What is Hidden in and What is Wrong with the Genetic Code?

How Do They Understand What is Hidden in and What is Wrong with the Genetic Code?

The scientists can ‘read’ and ‘interpret’ the encrypted information that is accurately stored in your DNA molecules. They can code, encode and edit it. Wondering how they ‘read’ the encrypted in your DNA molecules information? Intrigued by the fact that they not only understand what is wrong with the genetic code but also can correct it? Utterly amused that you have never envisioned in your mind those tiny gorgeous DNA–curled spirals? Feeling nervous that they can reveal the hidden mysteries in your genetic code? Then, it is high time to glance through this article as it was designed to explain to you how they understand what is wrong with the genetic code.

(1) What is the ‘Genetic Code’? Where is the genetic code hidden?

Virtually every tiny cell in your body contains the complete set of instructions for making you – YOU. These instructions are ENCRYPTED inside your DNA or the UNIQUE genetic code. Have you ever envisioned in your mind those tiny gorgeous DNA–curled spirals? DNA is a long, complex, ladder–shaped molecule that contains each person’s unique genetic code. And your UNIQUE genetic code is accurately designed, secretly encrypted, delicately enveloped and compactly packaged inside your DNA. 

DNA is so long molecule that it should be compactly packaged inside something and ‘ENVELOPED’. DNA molecules are so long that they can’t fit into the cells without the accurate and compact packaging. To fit inside cells, DNA is curled up tightly to form the special thread–shaped structures – the chromosomes. And the chromosomes are the bundles of tightly coiled DNA located within the nucleus. In other words, the chromosomes are the gorgeous envelopes for the DNA molecules. Each chromosome contains a single DNA molecule. Metaphorically saying, the DNA molecule curls itself up, twists itself up, cuddles itself up, twirls itself up inside the chromosome.

Or scientifically saying, a single length of DNA is wrapped many times around lots of proteins, called ‘histones’, to form structures called nucleosomes. These nucleosomes then curl up tightly to create chromatin loops. The chromatin loops are then wrapped around each other to make a full chromosome. Each chromosome has two short arms (p arms), two longer arms (q arms), and a centromere holding it all together at the centre. Each of us has 23 pairs of chromosomes, which are found inside the cell’s nucleus. The DNA making up each of our chromosomes contains thousands of genes. At the ends of each of our chromosomes are sections of DNA called ‘telomeres’. Telomeres protect the ends of the chromosomes during DNA replication.

(2) What may happen with the DNA molecules?

When a cell divides in two, it makes a copy of its genome, then parcels out one copy to each of the two new cells without verifying the copies of the genome. So, two cells have the valid but different genome copies. Theoretically, the entire genome sequence is copied exactly. But in practice, a wrong base is incorporated into the DNA sequence every time a cell divides in two, or a base or two might be left out or added. These mistakes or DNA pattern alterations are called ‘mutations’. These mutations can cause many different diseases. They are closely associated with the multisymptomatic and difficultly diagnosed disorders.

Sometimes these mutations are utterly complex. And the scientists should transcribe the genetic code to understand what exactly is wrong. That should be done prior to the accurate EDITING of these mutations. BUT WHY? Wondering why should it be done prior to the editing?

Every DNA molecule is like a uniquely programmed system. And those tiny gorgeous DNA–curled spirals possess the unique blend of decrypt and encrypted information and there is some space without information at all. In other words, those tiny gorgeous DNA–curled spirals are the strings of Pearl Rondelle Beads. There are some beads that are filled with content, and there are some beads that are without content. All the content should be revealed to understand the essence of the complex mutations. And the scientists should understand the those complex ‘mistakes’ [mutations] in the genetic code and accurately correct every mutation to prevent the disease.

(3) What is Gene Transcription? 

The genetic code is a mysterious miracle because it contains all the instructions a cell requires to sustain itself. As you know, it is hidden in the elegantly curled DNA spirals. Wondering which sparkling secret is hidden there and what this secret is?

The DNA’s most extraordinary secret — how a simple code is turned into something gorgeous. For example, how a simple code is turned in blood. There are two processes that are responsible for this: transcription and translation. So, it is necessary to accurately transcript and translate the information, hidden in the DNA spirals.

Transcription is the process by which the information in DNA is copied into messenger RNA. It begins with a bundle of factors assembling at the start of a gene. A gene is simply a length of DNA instructions stretching away to the left. The assembled factors trigger the first phase of the process, reading off the information that will be needed to make the protein. Everything is ready to roll: three, two, one, GO!

The blue molecule racing along the DNA is reading the gene. It is unzipping the DNA double helix and copying one of the DNA’s two strands. The yellow chain curling out [like a bundle of curls] of the top is a copy of the genetic message and it is made of RNA. The building blocks to make the RNA enter through an intake hole. They are matched to the DNA – letter by letter – to copy the ‘As’, ‘Cs’, ‘Ts’ and ‘Gs’ of the gene. The only difference is that in the RNA copy, the letter ‘T’ is replaced with a closely related building block known as ‘U’. This process – is called ‘Transcription’. This blue molecule that is racing along the DNA and reading the gene is RESPONSIBLE for the accurate COPYING of the genetic information. 

(4) What is Gene’s Translation? 

The gene transcription process is a miracle. And we get that. But there are so many nuances of the process that follow its completion. Here, the miracle comes. The yellow molecule that was designed during the transcription process is the messenger RNA (mRNA). It leaves the nucleus and inspiringly wanders around looking for tits fiancée. It is really a capricious one, as it is constantly saying ‘You are not unique’. ‘You are not gorgeous’. ‘You are not beautiful’. ‘Your glittering curls are not dark–gold–colored’, etc. The only one can capture its attention. Until the time mRNA would find it, it would be apathetic, capricious or depressed. The bundle of mRNA desires to ‘Hug and Cuddle up to its fiancée’, the bundle of ribosomal RNA (rRNA).

When the RNA copy is complete, it snakes out into the outer part of the cell. At the ribosome, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) binds to mRNA. Then in a dazzling display of choreography, all the components of a molecular machine lock together around the RNA to form a miniature factory called a ‘Ribosome’. It translates the genetic information in the RNA into a string of amino acids that will become a protein.

Inside the ribosome, the RNA is pulled through like a tape. The code for each amino acid is read off, three letters at a time, and matched to three corresponding letters on the transfer molecules. When the right transfer molecule plugs in, the amino acid it carries is added to the growing protein chain. And after a few seconds, the assembled protein starts to emerge from the ribosome. Ribosomes can make any kind of protein. It just depends what genetic message is set in on the RNA.

(5) How do they transcript and translate the genes? 

The processes of transcription and translation are happening every moment in almost every cell in your body. And if the DNA molecule has the defective genes, the transcription [the copying] of the information will also include the mutations. And the translation of the information will be also incorrect.

We have already mentioned some exciting applications of the CRISPR system, including the manipulation of RNA sequences, and the visualization of chromosomes in the previous article. The CRISPR system has been documented to be very reliable and specific in altering gene expression, via leveraging inactive catalytically dead CRISPR–associated protein 9 (Cas9). At present, the scientists adopted CRISPR–Cas9 Multifunctional Complex/Platform for the gene transcription and monitoring cell fate. They do it by deactivating Cas9 enzyme completely so that it can no longer cut DNA. Instead, the transcriptional activators are added to the Cas9 to activate or repress gene expression. That seems that the CRISPR system has a wonderful application – the modulation of transcription.

When the Cas9 is converted into deactivated Cas9 (dCas9), the CRISPR system applications may be reprogrammed. Instead of CRISPR editing, CRISPR activation, and protein imaging, they can alternatively choose the CRISPR interference application. This application works in the following way: dCas9 can repress transcription by interfering with transcription initiation by being targeted to the gene of interest with a properly chosen Guide–RNA, and this stops the transcription and translation of the dangerous genes. They will be deactivated. It is one of the most possible versions of exclusive Genome–Editing tools. It shows that it is possible to turn a disease–causing mutation into a healthy version of the gene.

CONCLUSIVE COMMENTS: 

The genetic code is a “blueprint” because it contains the instructions a cell requires to sustain itself. The instructions stored within DNA can be “read” in two steps: transcription and translation. In transcription, a portion of the double–stranded DNA template gives rise to a single–stranded RNA molecule. Transcription of an RNA molecule is followed by a translation step, which ultimately results in the production of a protein molecule. Controlling transcription and translation helps to understand what is wrong and what causes the cell fate. Regulation of cell pluripotency and tissue morphogenesis is achieved by transcriptional regulation of unique combinations of gene targets at precise times during development. That seems that they can exclude the life–threatening disease–causing genes from the embryo code. Doesn’t that amazing, does it?

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