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Print Posted on 12/05/2018 in Fertility Treatment Options

What is Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) of the Genetic Embryonic Content?

What is Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) of the Genetic Embryonic Content?

IVF treatment cycle literally involves you in the Other Reality... The reality where your utmost dream is slowly turned into a real thing! Envisioned or not, but your dream–reality comes true! And in this New Reality, the Mystery takes place: they create tiny sparkling embryos… Yes, they design for you that tiny, glittering, handsome embryo–dudes and tiny, sparkling, gorgeous embryo–ladies! Be sure, during IVF treatment cycles experts design as many embryos as they can! And after that, the most perfect ones are chosen for being transferred! And you can decide how many of those glittering tiny ones should be transferred and how many should be waiting for you…

Every tiny sparkling one wants to be chosen! So, metaphorically saying, they are “twisting and turning” in their Petri Dishes, they are chatting, discussing, screaming, laughing, arguing, and even shouting at each other! Who will be chosen for the transfer? Who will have the possibility to launch the private space? Who will whisper: “Mom, I am choosing this space to be mine, and launching here… I am tired and scared, will have some time to sleep here… Curling up here… Hugging you virtually! Soon will hug you really…” Who will soon have the tiny real booties and toetips to make the “blueprints” inside? Who will have the tiny wrists and the tiny fingertips to practice the wrist–holdings, and hugs? Who will practice the tiny water ballet movements inside? Who will twist, turn, kick, and stretch there? Who will open and close those languorous dark–blue eyes? Who will curl the lips into an amusing smile?

Ideally, the embryo transfer procedure starts with “Private Shuttle Preparation”! The tiny catheter is taken, your tiny scared embryo–lady or embryo–dude is taken out of the Petri–dish and waits for a ‘BIG TRANSFER’. If it is the time to replace this small embryo–bundle from the tube inside your uterus, it is placed inside a flexible catheter. The procedure of Embryo Transfer takes only several minutes. It takes all of three minutes to insert a weird kind of catheter, get it to where it needs to be, accurately place your little embryo inside your uterus, and that is all. YES, and it has to ‘LEARN’ so many things inside. It wonders: ‘Where am I?’ ‘What has happened?’ ‘Everything is pulsating around me…’ ‘Should I curl up here or there?’ ‘Oh, it is better on the left side?’ ‘I am scared. I will just cuddle up to that warm place and sleep there.’

But before this Big Transfer Day so many events should be ideally synchronized in a timeframe… Sometimes they should accurately choose the tiny sparkling one who is absolutely healthy among the cohort of the embryos. This happens when there is an increased risk of inheriting the genetic disease.

To identify genetic defects within embryos the smart solution was designed. It is termed as “Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis.” It enables the experts to Glance “Inside” the Tiny Sparkling Embryos and to find out which ones don’t have the genetic defects. In other words, they “Glance Inside”, “Read” the Genetic Content, and identify those tiny glittering ones without defective genetic content. All these things are done to make it possible to choose the ideal, healthy, tiny Sparkles for the future embryo transfer!

If there will be several ones tiny sparkles without genetic defects, then your dream of having twins will come true! Want only one baby? Then one tiny embryo will be transferred. Want twins? Oh, those two glowing miracles are waiting for you! Wondering about having triplets? Surely, those three curled embryos hugging each other are waiting for you. The only thing you should decide, whom you would like to have. Maybe three handsome embryo–dudes? Or three gorgeous embryo–ladies? Two dudes and one lady? Two ladies and one dude? Any thoughts about that?

(1) What is Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)? 

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is a smart testing technique used to identify genetic defects in the cohort of the tiny embryos created through in vitro fertilization (IVF) before their implantation. Preimplantation genetic diagnostic testing can identify whether a specific embryo carries a defective genetic content that may lead to failed implantation, miscarriage or the birth of the tiny bundle with inherited genetic disorders.

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is the biopsy of one or more cells from a preimplantation embryo to define whether an embryo is affected by a monogenic disease. Sometimes Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PDG) is synchronized with Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS) define whether an embryo is affected by chromosomal abnormalities. Both these screening tests are done to prevent the implantation of a symptomatic fetus.

(7) What are the PGD and PGS?

Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) are currently applied to evaluate the presence of aneuploidies in embryos germline editing. Basically, these two techniques are biopsies. The biopsy is the invasive method for genome editing.

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) and Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS) for monogenic diseases and/or numerical/structural chromosomal abnormalities are the tools for embryo testing aimed at identifying non–affected and/or euploid embryos in a cohort produced during an IVF treatment cycle.

The main goal of PGD and PGS, which are the biopsy of one or more cells from a preimplantation embryo followed by the ploidy analysis of these cells, is to define whether an embryo is affected by a monogenic disease and/or chromosomal impairments, thus preventing the implantation of a symptomatic fetus and/or limiting the risks underlying the transfer of chromosomally abnormal embryos. And as these techniques are biopsies, they should be performed with the utter accuracy because they can harm the embryo. In other words, during PGD or PGS the reproductive specialists must not to significantly harm the embryo during the biopsy and preserve its viability and reproductive potential.

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis can screen the tiny embryos for more than 100 different genetic conditions. It makes possible for women to carry a healthy fetus unaffected by hereditary diseases! Furthermore, this technique has such smart “options” as advanced DNA analytic technology, including comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and next–generation sequencing (NGS). This advanced boutique technique that detects a single gene disorder is available in the most Fertility Clinics worldwide. Every day thousands of excessively experienced embryologists screen millions of tiny sparkling embryos defining those with defective genetic content and with normal genetic content.

But how everything happens? What is genetic content? How does the genetic defect “appear” in a tiny embryo? What is the “Genome Mutations”? Why do they happen? Is it possible to prevent them? Or can they correct them so that the tiny sparkling one will be absolutely healthy? 

(2) DNA? DNA?? DNA??? What is ‘DNA’? Is there any basic info for the accurate DNA understanding? 

Your body contains from 5 billion to 200 million trillion tiny cells. The scientists cannot say the exact number because some types of the cells are easy to spot, while the others – such as tangled neurons that twist themselves up, or curl themselves up, or cuddle up to one another, making it impossible to count their number.

Virtually every tiny cell in your body contains the complete set of instructions for making you – YOU. These instructions are ENCRYPTED inside your DNA or the UNIQUE genetic code that makes you – YOU. Have you ever envisioned in your mind those tiny gorgeous DNA–curled spirals? DNA is a long, complex, ladder–shaped molecule that contains each person’s unique genetic code. And your UNIQUE genetic code is accurately designed, secretly encrypted, delicately enveloped and compactly packaged inside your DNA.

As we have mentioned, DNA is a long, ladder–shaped molecule, designed especially to encrypt your unique genetic code. Each rung on the ladder is made up of a pair of interlocking units. These called interlocking units are called bases. They are designated by the four letters in the DNA alphabet – ‘A’, ‘T’, ‘G’ and ‘C’. ‘A’ always pairs with ‘T’, and ‘G’ always pairs with ‘C’.

(3) DNA is so long molecule that it should be compactly packaged inside something and ‘ENVELOPED’

DNA molecules are too long. They are so long that they can’t fit into the cells without the accurate and compact packaging. To fit inside cells, DNA is curled up tightly to form the special thread–shaped structures – the chromosomes. And the chromosomes are the bundles of tightly coiled DNA located within the nucleus. In other words, the chromosomes are the gorgeous envelopes for the DNA molecules. Each chromosome contains a single DNA molecule. Metaphorically saying, the DNA molecule curls itself up, twists itself up, cuddles itself up, twirls itself up inside the chromosome.

Or scientifically saying, a single length of DNA is wrapped many times around lots of proteins, called ‘histones’, to form structures called nucleosomes. These nucleosomes then curl up tightly to create chromatin loops. The chromatin loops are then wrapped around each other to make a full chromosome. Each chromosome has two short arms (p arms), two longer arms (q arms), and a centromere holding it all together at the centre. Each of us has 23 pairs of chromosomes, which are found inside the cell’s nucleus. The DNA making up each of our chromosomes contains thousands of genes. At the ends of each of our chromosomes are sections of DNA called ‘telomeres’. Telomeres protect the ends of the chromosomes during DNA replication.

(4) The most amusing fact about chromosomes: there are glittering chromosome tips at the ends of each chromosome (each chromosome tip has the sparkling molecular shoe on it. Isn’t it wonderful?)

Chromosomes do love the ought shoes couture. Therefore, there are so many glittering molecular shoes that are worn on every chromosome–tip. Sounds intriguing, isn’t it? These ‘shoes’ are called ‘telomeres’. Telomeres are the glittering chromosome–tips that prevent the gene loss. Every time a cell carries out DNA replication, the chromosomes are shortened by about 25–200 bases (‘A’, ‘C’, ‘G’, or ‘T’) per replication. However, ends of each of our chromosomes are protected by telomeres, the only part of the chromosome that is lost is the telomere, and the DNA is left undamaged. Without telomeres, important DNA would be lost every time the cell divides. This would eventually lead to the loss of the entire gene.

(5) Chromosomes are organized into Genes. Gene? Genes? What Are Genes? 

Chromosomes are further organized into short segments of DNA called genes. Genes are the essential templates the body uses to make the structural proteins and enzymes needed to build and maintain tissues and organs. They are made up of strands of genetic code, denoted by the letters ‘G’, ‘C’, ‘T’ and ‘A’.

Each of us has about 20,000 genes bundled into 23 pairs of chromosomes all curled up in the nucleus of nearly every cell in the body. It is interesting to note that only around 2% of our genetic code, or genome, is made up of genes. Another 10% regulates them, ensuring that genes turn on and off in the right cells at the right time, for instance. And the rest of our DNA is apparently a beautiful glittering accessory (as the DNA is long and ‘curly’ spiral molecule).

(6) Genome. What is genome? Is that the same as ‘gene’ or something different? 

A genome is a body’s complete set of genetic instructions. Genome, or our unique genetic code, is made up of genes. Our genome is approximately 3,000,000,000 base pairs long and is packaged into 23 pairs of chromosomes. This set of instructions is known as our genome and is made up of DNA twisted–shaped molecules. DNA molecules have the encrypted unique chemical code that Manages everything in our bodies.

(7) The Genome is multidimensional genetic code, but why it is also unique? 

Every genome is different because of mutations — ‘mistakes’ that occur occasionally in a DNA sequence. When a cell divides in two, it makes a copy of its genome, then parcels out one copy to each of the two new cells without verifying the copies of the genome. So, two cells have valid but different genome copies. Theoretically, the entire genome sequence is copied exactly. But in practice, a wrong base is incorporated into the DNA sequence every time a cell divides in two, or a base or two might be left out or added. These mistakes or DNA pattern alterations are called ‘mutations’.

(8) What types of gene mutations may occur?

Mutations may be natural or induced. They may occur at the chromosome level, gene level, or molecular level. Spontaneous mutations occur if the DNA application (DNA app fails to copy accurately) has some mistakes when a cell divides in two and makes a copy of its genome, then parcels out one copy to each of the two new cells without verifying the copies of the genome. So, two cells have valid but different genome copies.

Induced mutations are caused by artificial agents’ (mutagens) interventions.

[1] Missense mutation (or Point mutation) is the most common type of gene mutation. This type of mutation changes a single nucleotide base pair. Point mutation is an alteration in one DNA base pair that results in the substitution of one amino acid for another in the protein made by a gene. In other words, it is a change that occurs in a DNA sequence. Mutations are common in our DNA, but most of them have no detectable effect.

[2] Substitution is the mutation when one or more bases in the sequence are replaced by the same number of bases (for example, a cytosine substituted for an adenine?

[3] Inversion is the mutation when a segment of a chromosome is reversed end to end.

[4] Insertion is the mutation when a base is added to the sequence.

[5] Deletion is the mutation when a base is deleted from the sequence.

(9) Why are the gene mutations dangerous?

A mutation is a change that occurs in our DNA sequence, either due to mistakes when the DNA is copied or as the result of environmental factors. Depending on where the mutations occur, they can affect the DNA sequence or even the chromosomes. They can have no effect on the DNA sequence and the chromosomes. Or they can change the DNA sequence or even the chromosomes so much that it would result in a genetic disorder.

Any type of mutation may cause the genetic disorder. A genetic disorder is a disease that is caused by a change, or mutation, in a person’s DNA sequence. The mutations can cause such diseases as Alzheimer’s disease, Cystic fibrosis, Hemophilia, Huntington’s disease, tumor diseases etc.

(10) How to prevent or correct genetic diseases?

The best way for prevention is testing. Genetic testing is an incredibly useful tool for identifying changes or mutations in DNA that could lead to genetic disease and what is more dreadful, the defective genetic content of the tiny embryo. If you are worried about the genetic content that will be transferred to the tiny embryo, consult with the Specialist what genetic testing can be done before the IVF cycle.

Genetic testing involves carrying out a range of tests on samples of DNA taken mainly from blood, hair, skin. The DNA sample is then sent to the laboratory where scientists look for specific changes in the DNA to find and identify any genetic disorders. The results of the genetic screening are then sent in writing to the doctor so that your doctor can discuss them with you. Your doctor can recommend you the alternative methods to solve your issues and to cope with your situation.

(11) What is Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) of the Genetic Embryonic Content?

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is the testing of embryos at preimplantation stage or oocytes for defects in the genetic content. It is amultistage procedure that requires in vitro fertilization, embryo biopsy and either using fluorescent in situ hybridization or polymerase chain reaction at the single cell level.

There are three potential sources of embryonic genetic material for preimplantation genetic analysis. The first source is polar bodies (biopsy of the first polar body from oocytes before sperm insemination or biopsy of both polar bodies from oocytes after sperm insemination). The second source is blastomeres biopsied from 5– to 10–cell cleavage–stage embryos on Day 3. And the third source is trophectoderm cells from embryos at the blastocyst stage.

Testing at the polar body (PB) stage is the least accurate mainly because of the high incidence of post–zygotic events. Embryo biopsy at the cleavage stage (6– to 8–cell stage) with retrieval of one or two blastomeres is the most common approach for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of monogenic diseases.

(12) Can the biopsy affect the tiny embryo?

A critical aspect of this technology is the potential detrimental effect that the biopsy itself can have upon the embryo. Different embryo biopsy strategies have been proposed by experts. Cleavage stage blastomere biopsy is the most commonly used method nowadays, although it has a negative impact on embryo viability and implantation potential. Polar body biopsy has been proposed as an alternative to embryo biopsy, especially for aneuploidy testing. Blastocyst stage biopsy nowadays is the safest approach not to impact embryo implantation potential. After the biopsy, the healthiest embryo is transferred into the uterus. 

But are there the advanced sophisticated technologies that can turn the defective genetic content into the healthy version? Is there at least one chance for those tiny faded embryos suffering from genetic defects? 

(13) Can they correct the Genome Content? Yes? Genome Editing? What is “Genome Editing”? 

Genome editing is a technique used to precisely and efficiently modify DNA fragments within a cell. An enzyme cuts the DNA at a specific sequence, and when this is repaired by the cell a change or ‘edit’ is made to the sequence. Genome editing can be used to add, remove, or alter DNA in the genome. Genome editing is used to correct the genetic defects or to exclude the possibility of the serious diseases’ transmission to the baby.

Genome Editing (or Gene Editing) are the technologies that give scientists the ability to alter the DNA strands’ structure. These technologies are used to correct the genetic defects or to exclude the possibility of the serious diseases’ further transmission to the baby. They allow genetic material to be EDITED, or, in simple words, to be added, removed, or altered at particular locations in the genome. Genome edition technology is the intervention with the unique options that can correct the known genetic defects.

Genome editing is the introduction of changes in precise chromosomal DNA sequences. This technology not only changes DNA sequence specificity and double–stranded DNA but it presents the new opportunities for those suffering from serious genetic diseases. Literally, these technologies give those who have the genetic disease the chance.

But the Genome Mutations may be completely excluded??? The wrong genes may be replaced completely by the correct ones! The Embryo Code Can Be Modified with CRISPR Technology for Genome Editing!

The Embryo Code Can Be Modified with CRISPR Technology for Genome Editing

Genome Editing (or Gene Editing) are the technologies that give scientists the ability to alter the DNA strands’ structure. These technologies are used to correct the genetic defects or to exclude the possibility of the serious diseases’ further transmission to the baby. They allow genetic material to be EDITED, or, in simple words, to be added, removed, or altered at particular locations in the genome.

(14) What is ‘Genetic Code’? Where is the genetic code hidden?

Virtually every tiny cell in your body contains the complete set of instructions for making you – YOU. These instructions are ENCRYPTED inside your DNA or the UNIQUE genetic code. Have you ever envisioned in your mind those tiny gorgeous DNA–curled spirals? DNA is a long, complex, ladder–shaped molecule that contains each person’s unique genetic code. And your UNIQUE genetic code is accurately designed, secretly encrypted, delicately enveloped and compactly packaged inside your DNA.

DNA is so long molecule that it should be compactly packaged inside something and ‘ENVELOPED’. DNA molecules are so long that they can’t fit into the cells without the accurate and compact packaging. To fit inside cells, DNA is curled up tightly to form the special thread–shaped structures – the chromosomes. And the chromosomes are the bundles of tightly coiled DNA located within the nucleus. In other words, the chromosomes are the gorgeous envelopes for the DNA molecules. Each chromosome contains a single DNA molecule. Metaphorically saying, the DNA molecule curls itself up, twists itself up, cuddles itself up, twirls itself up inside the chromosome.

Or scientifically saying, a single length of DNA is wrapped many times around lots of proteins, called ‘histones’, to form structures called nucleosomes. These nucleosomes then curl up tightly to create chromatin loops. The chromatin loops are then wrapped around each other to make a full chromosome. Each chromosome has two short arms (p arms), two longer arms (q arms), and a centromere holding it all together at the centre. Each of us has 23 pairs of chromosomes, which are found inside the cell’s nucleus. The DNA making up each of our chromosomes contains thousands of genes. At the ends of each of our chromosomes are sections of DNA called ‘telomeres’. Telomeres protect the ends of the chromosomes during DNA replication.

(15) One AMUSING FACT about the genetic code

As we have mentioned, DNA is a long, ladder–shaped molecule, designed especially to encrypt your unique genetic code. Each rung on the ladder is made up of a pair of interlocking units. These called interlocking units are called bases. They are designated by the four letters in the DNA alphabet – ‘A’, ‘T’, ‘G’ and ‘C’. ‘A’ always pairs with ‘T’, and ‘G’ always pairs with ‘C’.

The most amusing fact about chromosomes: there are glittering chromosome tips at the ends of each chromosome (each chromosome tip has the sparkling molecular shoe on it). Isn’t it wonderful? Chromosomes do love the ought shoes couture. Therefore, there are so many glittering molecular shoes that are worn on every chromosome–tip. Sounds intriguing, isn’t it? These ‘shoes’ are called ‘telomeres’. Telomeres are the glittering chromosome–tips that prevent the gene loss. Every time a cell carries out DNA replication, the chromosomes are shortened by about 25–200 bases (‘A’, ‘C’, ‘G’, or ‘T’) per replication. However, ends of each of our chromosomes are protected by telomeres, the only part of the chromosome that is lost is the telomere, and the DNA is left undamaged. Without telomeres, important DNA would be lost every time the cell divides. This would eventually lead to the loss of the entire gene. But it is safely encrypted, so you shouldn’t worry about that.

(16) What may happen with the DNA molecules?

When a cell divides in two, it makes a copy of its genome, then parcels out one copy to each of the two new cells without verifying the copies of the genome. So, two cells have the valid but different genome copies. Theoretically, the entire genome sequence is copied exactly. But in practice, a wrong base is incorporated into the DNA sequence every time a cell divides in two, or a base or two might be left out or added. These mistakes or DNA pattern alterations are called ‘mutations’. These mutations can cause many different diseases.

(17) What is CRISPR–Cas9 Complex/Platform and how does it work?

As the Embryo’s genetic code consists of the oocyte’s DNA (half of the mother’s genetic code) and spermatozoon’s DNA (half of the father’s genetic code), it should be edited after fertilization when the genetic code will be complete. That means that they will inject your embryos with the CRISPR–Cas9 Complex. And the injected CRISPR components that target and cut DNA in a specific place will EDIT [correct] the embryos’ genetic codes (disease–causing genetic mutations and mosaics). Especially CRISPR–Cas9 Platform is of essential to correct a mutation that causes an inheritable heart condition. Catching and correcting the mutation in this case, in the earliest stages of embryo development would either reduce or eliminate the need for treatment in the future.

The CRISPR–Cas9 Complex/Platform is an exceptionally accurate MOLECULAR tool for cutting DNA molecules at the specifically targeted locations. There are two molecular components in the CRISPR system: a DNA–cutting enzyme called Cas9, and another molecule known as a Guide–RNA. Cas9 enzyme cuts the genome at a site targeted by an RNA guide molecule. Bound together they form a complex/platform that can identify and cut specific sections of the DNA. Metaphorically, CRISPR–Cas9 Complex/Platform can be described as a molecular hand with wrists, palm, and fingers. Its molecular fingers are Cas9 DNA–cutting enzyme.

First, CRISPR–Cas9 complex identifies the disease–causing genetic mutations and mosaics in the DNA’s structure. After the identification, the CRISPR–Cas9 platform stops and Cas9 has to locate and bind to a common sequence in a genome (PAM gene (Protein Coding)). Once a PAM is bound, the Guide–RNA molecule unwinds the part of the double DNA’s Helix. The RNA–strand is exclusively designed to match and bind to a particular sequence in the DNA’s strand. It identifies the disease–causing genetic mutations and mosaics in those gorgeous DNA–curled spirals. Once it finds the correct sequence, enzyme Cas9 can cut the DNA’s strand. Cas9 has two nucleus domains ‘molecular scissors’ that cut a double DNA’s strand.

This technology works as a ‘tiny pair of molecular scissors’ that cut out the unnecessary DNA strand. Once the affected DNA is cut, the cell will repair the cut by joining the DNA strands’ ends (with some DNA at the cut side being lost so that a deletion is made), or by using any available DNA strands to complete the gap. Although the cell will try to repair this break, the fixing process often inevitably introduces the mutations that disable the defective gene.

(18) What else can CRISPR–Cas9 Complex/Platform do?

CRISPR–Cas9 Complex/Platform not only cuts out the defective genes. If one or both Cas9 cutting domains are deactivated, the new enzymes can be introduced to this platform. That seems that a ‘tiny pair of molecular scissors’ that cut out the unnecessary DNA strand will be deactivated, and the complex will work as a molecular platform that will transfer those new enzymes to a specific DNA’s sequence.

For example, the CRISPR–Cas9 Genome–Editing Complex/Platform can identify the defective DNA’s strand, which mutates the specific DNA–enzyme in the basis. Eventually, that enzyme can be replaced with the other enzyme. It is one of the most possible versions of exclusive Genome–Editing tools. It shows that it is possible to turn a disease–causing mutation into a healthy version of the gene.

The genetic code is a “blueprint” because it contains the instructions a cell requires to sustain itself. The instructions stored within DNA can be “read” in two steps: transcription and translation. In transcription, a portion of the double–stranded DNA template gives rise to a single–stranded RNA molecule. Transcription of an RNA molecule is followed by a translation step, which ultimately results in the production of a protein molecule. CRISPR–Cas9 Complex/Platform can be also used for the gene transcription and monitoring cell fate. They do it by deactivating Cas9 enzyme completely so that it can no longer cut DNA. Instead, the transcriptional activators are added to the Cas9 to activate (9) or repress gene expression.

(19) Are there any risks for the embryo? 

This genome–editing technology almost excludes the risk of making additional, unwanted genetic changes (called off–target mutations) and the risk of generating mosaics — in which different cells in the embryo contain different genetic sequences.

Genome edition technologies are the interventions with the unique EDITING OPTIONS that can correct the known genetic defects by altering, removing or adding nucleotides to the genome. As a result, the DNA molecules are not only EDITED but also REPROGRAMMED. At present, the technique that is used for the embryo genome editing is called CRISPR–Cas9 Complex/Platform. This technique has shown the new sparkles in the genetics. Current scientific reviews show that CRISPR is not only an extremely versatile technology, but it’s also proving to be precise and increasingly safe to use. CRISPR allows editing the DNA sequences (to find, cut and then paste the new gene). Its many potential applications include identifying, validating and correcting the genetic defects, cutting the defected place in the DNA strands, treating and preventing the spread of diseases.

(20) The Sparkling Future for all the embryos that are suffering from genetic defects

Is it real to have the DESIGNER BABY?

You may wonder whether it is real to have the DESIGNER BABY, or not. You may nervously envision in the mind the ideal embryo–baby. Or considering that it is just the gossips about boutique–embryo–babies. The babies that are absolutely perfect both morphologically and esthetically. And you will be amused to hear ‘YES’. Yes, it is possible to have the designer baby [if you undergo the IVF treatment cycle] as every embryo has its unique embryo code. And that unique embryo code can be edited in the lab through several advanced techniques.

Designer babies are created from an embryo selected by preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). The primary aim of creating designer babies is to avoid the heritable diseases coded by mutations in DNA. Currently, using the genome–editing techniques, the embryologists can design the babies through editing the genetic imperfections.

In which situations the doctor may strongly recommend you the gene–editing technologies? 

Embryos are prone to chromosomal abnormalities. It may even happen that almost all your embryos would be mosaic. Or their DNA would be fragmented. Furthermore, gene–editing technologies offer an alternative for women to carry a fetus unaffected by hereditary diseases.

In such adverse situations, gene–editing technologies are strongly recommended. And what if you just want that tiny embryo, which is uniquely designed for you to be perfect? What if it is just your wish to have the ideal baby? Are there any restrictions or limitations for editing the embryo’s genetic code?

Is it possible to apply for the DESIGNER BABY if you don’t have strong medical recommendations?

At present, the Reproductive Specialists can ‘DESIGN’ the baby for you if you will apply and sign the papers. Nowadays the boutique embryo–baby (or the boutique embryo–babies) are pre–designed via transparent discussion with the doctors [establishing INCLUSIVE and EXCLUSIVE CRITERIA. And after that created from an embryo (or embryos) selected by preimplantation genetic diagnosis. And preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) itself includes invasive and non–invasive options.

How can the Reproductive Specialists ‘DESIGN’ the baby for you?

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), following in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment cycles, preimplantation embryo biopsy, and genetic analysis of a single cell or small numbers of cells are the basic gene–editing technologies that allow to ‘show’ the embryo’s genetic code and to edit it. All these methods the reproductive specialists can perform in the lab to design the embryo–baby for you. But these methods are not the only ones. Nowadays, the reproductive specialists also use an effective CRISPR technique for modifying DNA structures.

What is the CRISPR technique for modifying DNA structures?

More advanced and UNIQUE gene–editing technology is called ‘CRISPR’ [Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats]. It allows researchers to alter DNA sequences and modify gene function. CRISPR is the set of molecular scissors (an enzyme that cuts DNA), that cut out the defective genes. Just tag the CRISPR molecule with a bit of RNA (a slim sliver of genetic material that sticks to DNA) to guide it, and it can cut out and ‘EDIT’ or ‘rewrite’ any snippet of DNA its wielders would like to target.

To edit the DNA sequence by using CRISPR technology, the specialists should identify those affected genes in the DNA sequences, that should be cut out. This technology works as a ‘tiny pair of molecular scissors’ that cut out the unnecessary DNA strand. Once the affected DNA is cut, the cell will repair the cut by joining the DNA strands’ ends (with some DNA at the cut side being lost so that a deletion is made), or by using any available DNA strands to complete the gap.

But the goal is to edit the DNA structure or to complete the DNA structure with the necessary genes. Therefore, the reproductive specialists can inject between the DNA sequences (in the place of the cut) the new gene they want to insert. If a new gene is injected at the same time as sending in the artificial guide, the cell will often use this new DNA sequence to repair the cut.

In other words, CRISPR allows the doctors to edit the DNA sequences (to find, cut and then paste the new gene). Its many potential applications include identifying, validating and correcting the genetic defects, cutting the defected place in the DNA strands, treating and preventing the spread of diseases.

Creation of the designer babies is the hotly debated theme. IVF combined with CRISPR interventions could become a boutique option for creating the elite embryo–babies. These babies won’t suffer from genetic and other diseases. They will have a strong immune system. They will have an incapable attractive appearance, and even their intelligence will be beyond the imagination. But what will be with those babies who are naturally conceived? Will they find their place in such a PERFECT WORLD? Or will they be completely EXCLUDED from the ELITE SOCIETY of the DESIGNER BABIES? Or will these gene–editing technologies be implemented only to prevent the untreatable diseases and won’t be represented in every clinic’s price–list? What will be there in the future? What consequences will be entailed by this unique Genome Editing Option? 

The World of Sophisticated Options is at Your Fingertips! Wondering what every option noted in this list means? Worrying about the advantages and disadvantages it has? Not sure that this option is designed for you? Feeling like a bundle of nerves because you have no idea what option should be chosen because there are several ones that may be proposed for you? No worries here! We will navigate you in this Complex Ecosystem and will show you what is “inside” every treatment option! Why Waiting? All the Options are at your Fingertips! Just Bundle Up and Glance Through!

OVU.com: Connecting Clinics with Patients! Connecting Patients with Clinics! Connecting the World of the Most Powerful and Trusted Clinics with the World of Patients in One Safe, Exclusively Designed Environment! The Miracles start here… All the Treatment Options Are at Your Fingertips! OVU.com

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